Sociology of transition: a paradigm shift
The social environment or social setting plays pivotal role in constructing the subject matter of a subject; same applies with sociology, as the subject which primarily deals with the study of society. Social changes of contemporary world overrun/invade our lives, and it becomes imperative to look at these changing scenarios very closely. These changes within our social world have persuaded sociologists to notice these changes in new ways and dimensions. In this regard, sociologists have delved deep regarding the countless ramifications of social changes and to address these issues. Paradigm shift has occurred in the subject matter of sociology from classical setting i.e. Max Weber’s ‘Bureaucracy’ to ‘Post-Modernism’, Michel Foucault’s ‘Knowledge is Power’ and from Karl Marx’s ‘Means of Production’ to Jean Baudrillard’s ‘Codes of Production’. The new generation of sociologists have invented or engaged their readers with many concepts or tools of sociological research such as Pierre Bourdieu (fields and habitus), Jacques Derrida (deconstruction), Anthony Giddens (structuration) and so on.
However, Sociologists are repetitively seeking acquaintance about what holds societies together and what makes them bend under the impact of industrialism, the enlargement of capitalism as world economy, the growing complexity and differentiation of social institution, the compression of Time and Space concept. Sociology also has the power to help us understand the influence of major changes on people. Thus, rapidly developing technologies in the current times, Increasing Globalization, Diversity (discourses), and changing role of women in society are affecting everyone in society in one way or the other way. De facto, this changing scenario of social world is widening the scope and subject matter of the subject from division of labor to deskilled labor.
Further, in order to understand society and to fortify the subject matter of sociology, it becomes imperative for the social scientists that they must be acquainted with all the tools and techniques which will help them to approach ‘’objectively’’. Hence, they need not be subjective in their perspectives but they must ensure that their investigation is carried out in such a way that any personal views do not influence their research. To supplant this viewpoint, the immediate goal of sociology according to Samuel Koening is ‘’to improve man’s adjustment to life by developing objective knowledge concerning social phenomena’’.
To sum up, we can say that the subject of sociology is more relevant when it comes to the burning issues like, Suicide, Domestic Violence, Dowry Deaths, Poverty, Conflict, Alienation etc. In fact, the field for a sociologist to carry a research is wider and open, and the field of sociology offers a range of research techniques that can be applied in any aspect of society, like Versten, Ethonomethdology, Ideal Type, and Deconstruction. The lessons and practices of sociology can be applied to media pronouncements and other pieces of social lore to find objective understanding of social issues that are often clouded by people’s opinions. The main aim of sociology is to show the new findings from society which will be cured and treated. These social realities have many layers of meanings, The discovery of each new layer changes the perception of a whole. Obviously, sociologists should travel with shocking results.
Author studies at Department of Sociology, Kashmir University and can be mailed at email@example.com.